From “Hours of Spring”, Richard Jefferies

I thought myself so much to the earliest leaf and the first meadow orchis — so important that I should note the first zeezee of the titlark — that I should pronounce it summer, because now the oaks were green; I must not miss a day nor an hour in the fields lest something should escape me.


Just a thought, nothing more.

More to come.

Keep it wild and simple



I’m thinking mountains


Mountains. I am thinking. Mountains.
That exuberant moment on top.
The vista opens. Everything opens up.
You’re not a man or a woman any more.
Mountains. I am thinking.
Range of Light.
The strong flavor of grass and Edelweiss.
Brambles. Scratchy.
Hot stones on flesh.
Coils of vipers, under the red rock.
Feet trembling, heart-rate.
Mountains. I am thinking.
Loneliness, for a while.
And light.

Keep it wild and simple


A Tale of Two Worlds

It was the best of times,
it was the worst of times,
it was the age of wisdom,
it was the age of foolishness,
it was the epoch of belief,
it was the epoch of incredulity,
it was the season of Light,
it was the season of Darkness,
it was the spring of hope,
it was the winter of despair,
we had everything before us,
we had nothing before us,
we were all going direct to Heaven,
we were all going direct the other way

Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities (1859)


What Dickens wrote in 1859 was about his tale of two cities (London and Paris) in 1775. One may well say that this story has nothing to do with today’s world. Instead, as Dickens knew, it has everything to do with us, both because history is a cycle and because each and every age in history has its merits and its flaws. Our current age included, of course. Even though after the Enlightenment we may have thought that humanity has reached its highest peak, new improvements have always changed our lives, in a way improving our daily lives, in part depriving them of their essential flavors. Emerson said that “Our age is retrospective”. I would say that our age is just thinking about the present moment, that flickering moment that lasts than a blink and that will soon vanish into nothing.

Yes, I’m sure ours is the best of times. Think about all the advantages that the common Western citizen has today. Houses, cars, furniture, clothes, a lot of food (a lot!), leisure, holidays, everything just a click away from home, glasses and crutches, health care, education, television, washing machine, dish washer, a warm shower in the morning, a glass of red wine in the evening. Do you need anything else? Just buy it, and you’ll have it. Yet, ours is the worst of times. When something – even something useless and meaningless – is missing from this bright picture, there’s just despair. And terrorism. Wars. Insecurity, no retirement, no job, no equality, politicians, viruses, cancer, mental diseases, fear, loss, detachment, CLIMATE CHANGE, loss of biodiversity, loss of our own humanity and animality, loss of the value of life.

I’m sure ours is the age of wisdom: the sciences and the humanities are improving our lives and broadening our knowledge. We can travel to the moon and back, we can analyze the soil and the oceans, we can break our DNA into pieces, we can even create life. And yet, all these are but improved means used for unimproved ends. We are playing on the threshold between life and death. We are playing at the Creator. But we are losing track of our experiments and we are losing this game. We are framed in this picture and we are still unable to see and perceive the frame. We are given anything we want, just to feed our foolishness. We came to believe in anything and anyone, just to recover our incredulity when it’s too late.

Yes, this would be the season of light and the spring of hope. We have everything in before us, endless chances and possibilities, incredible experiences that our parents could not even think about. We can actually speak with someone in Australia. Yet, we have become completely unable to communicate meaningfully. That’s the season of darkness, the winter of despair; the friends on the social media count more than the people around us. A stupid, useless object is more worth than the purr of a cat. A 1km car ride is more indispensable than the life of a polar bear.

It’s almost Christmas. And I wonder how many useless things are waiting for us under a Christmas tree. We have been fostered with the idea that we need anything, just because we have the money to buy them. A new car, a new apartment, a boat, a shining dress for New Year’s Eve, the ultimate mobile phone, objects, objects, objects. It will never stop, unless we put a full stop at the end of this sentence, at the end of this thought. This year, for Christmas, buy a book. Make someone think. Help someone to think. Or buy something from a NGO or a charity. At least you will help someone else, a good cause. Put an end to this system, step out of the system, and spend some quality time with the creatures you love.

Keep it wild and simple


Tonight: Ulisse, Il Piacere della Scoperta

Save the date and the hour: this evening there will be a wonderful new chapter of Alberto Angela’s “Ulisse: Il Piacere della Scoperta” on the Italian TV channel Rai 3 (at 9 pm. Rome time). “Ulisse” is a renowned program about history, science, knowledge – broadly speaking. Tonight Alberto Angela will talk about “LEARNING FROM NATURE“. I don’t really know the precise content of this episode, but I’m sure it will be extremely interesting!


Do not miss this chance! It is gonna be great!

Keep it wild and simple


The relevant difference is between people who think and people who don’t.

One of the most famous and important Italian philosopher, Norberto Bobbio, once said:

“La differenza rilevante per me non passa tra credenti e non credenti, ma tra pensanti e non pensanti; ovvero tra coloro che riflettono sui vari perché e gli indifferenti che non riflettono”.

“To me, the relevant difference is not between believers and non-believers, but between those who think and those who don’t; that is, between those who reflect about the various ‘why(s)’ and the indifferent ones who don’t think”.

I can hardly add something to these statements. It’s so self-evident. If I write here so pedantically it is because things make me think, events and discussions trigger my anger and my thoughts, while I do perceive that there are so many people that just ‘breathe’. They live their lives without asking themselves questions, without interrogating the world. I see them accepting things as they come, a-critically. Just like a wave that hits them. They let themselves be hit. Sometimes they complain, but just because that’s everyone else is doing. They do not realize other lives. They do not realize how lucky or unlucky they are. They do not realize they / we are all victims of a system that does not want us to think, to ponder, to weigh possibilities, to try to build a proper, truthful, honest life. And for honest, I mean honest to our inner and most deep values. They are simply drifting.

And when they see a photo or a video on Facebook, they simply comment mindlessly. It happened today. I won’t post this pic. I do not want it here. Even though it may help thinking. It was a photo of a starving Polar bear. Skinny. Desperate. Lost. Without any hope of survival. Without any chance of survival. Looking for food. Craving it. But knowing, deep inside his black dark eyes, that the end was near. When I saw this pic, I felt useless. People were commenting stupid things about the photographer, who should have given him food. That’s useless and stupid. It’s easier to blame one man and to see just a picture, think about just one bear, one situation. It’s easier to cry for one bear and be angry for one bear and blame someone else.

Instead, we should all blame OURSELVES. Our politicians. Our daily choices. Our fucked-up world that tells us to buy and we buy. We should all blame the way we live our lives, in part because we choose to, in part because the system obliges us to do so. Really, who’s to blame? There is not just one starving bear. Feeding him would have not changed a thing.The fault is ours. It’s our cars, our heating systems, our food choice, our useless objects that surround and ‘fill’ our useless lives. It’s our politicians, whose asses are damn fixed on a damn armchair, fueled by corporations and the establishment. The blame is on us, ungrateful and senseless human beings.

The next time you see one of those pics, just THINK. Try to see the bigger picture. The message beyond our immediate emotions. Please. Think.


Save polar bears and save the Arctic:

Keep it wild and simple



Modern Times

I see young men, my townsmen, whose misfortune it is to have inherited farms, houses, barns, cattle, and farming tools; for these are more easily acquired than got rid of. Better if they had been born in the open pasture and suckled by a wolf, that they might have seen with clearer eyes what field they were called to labor in. Who made them serfs of the soil? Why should they eat their sixty acres, when man is  condemned to eat only his peck of dirt? Why should they begin digging their graves as soon as they are born? They have got to live a man’s life, pushing all these things
before them, and get on as well as they can. How many a poor immortal soul have I met well nigh crushed and smothered under its load, creeping down the road of life, pushing before it a barn seventy-five feet by forty, its Augean stables never cleansed, and one hundred acres of land, tillage, mowing, pasture, and wood-lot!

Henry David Thoreau, “Economy”, Walden, or Life in the Woods (1854)

Henry depicted his modern times in a clear-cut way. It was back in 1854. Have things changed? I am sure they have. But things have worsened. I am watching – as usual on Sunday morning – a great Italian TV program called “Omnibus”. It usually deals with economics and politics during the weekend. We as Italians seem almost obsessed by politics and by our broken economy. Having experienced a profound crisis after the end of the university, I have been developing some opinions about the current economic situation, the so-called ‘job market’, and political actions. “Omnibus” often gives voice to my fears, to my disappointment, and it stresses the problems of our modern times, especially of our modern Italian times. Today’s program is focused on the job market, Italian talents, and (low) wages. Many words – keywords – have been said. Inequalities, degrees, retirement, new jobs, reforms, resources, human capital, schools, entrepreneurship, management, male vs. female, start-up, innovations, debts, banks, failure, growth, money.

In the end, it all revolves around money, doesn’t it? We need them to live. I think there are several problems in our world, in our social and economic world, and many issues to be discussed. First, I wonder how a young guy can actually choose his school and/or his university merely thinking about job. I think that if one chooses the university according to the job market, he will never be able to finish successfully his degree. Economists do not take into account passions. And it is passion that creates competence and talents. I mean, not everyone is actually able to be an engineer. And surely, not everyone is interested in being an engineer. What shall we do with them?
Plus, they talk about the dignity of job. I haven’t found it yet, outside in the job market. Professionalism is not paid as it should, a degree is not paid as it should, young people are thought to be half deficient, as they should do internships where they are taught how to make photocopies. Where is the dignity?
They have been talking about wages. And I wonder HOW on earth there are people who earn more than 100,000 euros per month. That is absurd. I think that no one, not even the best manager on earth, should earn so much. I mean, what do they do with all that money? While there are people starving in the streets, maybe with a degree in his hands… Is this the world we have contributed to create? Is this the filthy world we are living in? It is not actually possible that those people earn so much just for 60 minutes of their worthless time, while young people, with ideas and talent to give, are stuck in a condition where they know that their life will actually be a struggle and a fight for crumbles. This is insane.

I don’t know if there can actually be solutions for this filthiness. I am sure Thoreau taught as a lot. First of all, he taught us how to truly live, and not to depend on the filthiness of money and ready-made desires. We are striving to earn more and to spend more, because society says so. “Buy and you’ll be free”. That’s a lie. Buy and you will be forever a slave of this mad world, held in chains. Spend and the market will start moving again. But those who will gain from its movement won’t be young people or poor families. Thoreau had already understood the dangers of his society, the snares hidden in that market. Now those snares have become bigger and more dangerous, and we have come to think that we cannot do without things. We value goods more than thoughts. We value money more than ideas. This is why having ideas, thoughts, passions is not paying out. People who can actually think are those who are suffering more in this situation, because they do understand their condition, they may have solutions, they have dreams and ideals, but they are stuck there in a corner, waiting for another six-month contract to make copies. I fear that no one is valuing intelligence anymore. Especially creative intelligence and those skills that cannot be learned during a six-month internship in a company that will leave you at home after the end of the contract. I feel that companies are not interested in your growth but in their own growth, so that those managers with thousands of euros per month can buy their new shiny cars. There are solutions, but those in power are obviously not willing to use them. They are the first who are paid too much for ‘working’, if what they are doing can be considered a job. I feel stuck in the middle of this system, with ideas, thoughts, and my own passion that has driven me so far, but with the constant and endless fear that I will have to deal with this system and I may not survive. I don’t want to surrender, Thoreau didn’t. I’d like to keep my values and ideals in mind, and fulfill them, fulfill that dream of living a humble and spartan life, trying to spread this message. There are multiple lives that we may live. We should not feel stuck in a pair of trousers that is not ours. And we should find solutions when we feel that the life we are living is not actually our life.

A song recites “se la forma del tuo corpo non coincide con il niente” (if the shape of our body does not coincide with the nothing). I would say “if the shape of your life does not coincide with your dreams” then DO SOMETHING. Act. And try to do it now, otherwise it will be too late. Don’t believe the hype and don’t believe those who tell you how to live your life. Try to do something meaningful out of your life, you may have just one.

I’ll leave you with this video. Astonishing. It makes you think.

Keep it wild and simple


Generation Y

I have just bumped into a post on Facebook. It’s on a page called “Viva gli Anni ’90”, which means “Glory to the 90s”. Basically, it celebrates all the things that people who spent their childhood in the 90s grew up with. I really like it because it perfectly represents part of my childhood. Today there was a particularly touching post. While being just a post on Facebook, it captured some issues that are being discussed today on TV, especially during Italian TV programs about politics (we are about to vote pretty soon, so there is much debate about politics, proposals, ideas, and ‘reforms’ to gather a bunch of votes and to persuade people – disillusioned people – to go and vote). Now, I’d like to copy and translate some of the impressions sketched in that post.

…quelli che vedono la casa acquistata allora dai nostri genitori valere oggi 20 o 30 volte tanto, e che pagheranno la propria fino ai 60 anni.
…those who see the house bought by our parents be worth 20 or 30 times more, and who will pay their own house till they’re 60.

I do not know how the situation is somewhere else, but for what I actually know, our generation, which is called Generation Y or Millennials, those who were born in between the 80s and the 00s, will never afford buying a house. How can we actually buy a house if half of us has debts to pay back for their university taxes (as in the UK or in the US) while the other half does not have a job or at least a PROPER JOB (as in Italy)? They told us: keep on studying, keep on learning, keep on doing your best and you will be repaid with the job of your dreams. That’s a lie. We kept on studying and trying to do our best to succeed and improve our conditions. And now someone keeps saying that young people are too much specialized, too much ‘educated’, too much intelligent, maybe, to be willing to bend their knees and their heads. It’s difficult to understand – from our point of view – that our lives will actually be more difficult and worse than our parents’. Because they gave us hope, they told us to believe that there will always be an increase in our wealth and happiness. That’s not true anymore, especially in a world where a bunch of people has all the power and money in their hands, and where you’ve been told to consume. We are so used to consuming and buying – and the Black Friday is a perfect example – that we always think that we won’t have enough. Maybe that’s the problem. We have to face that maybe we will never have a house, as well as the latest model of TV or a new shining car.

Per non aver vissuto direttamente il ’68 vi dicono che non avete ideali, mentre ne sapete più di politica di quanto credono e di quanto sapranno mai i nostri fratelli minori.
Because you did not directly live the ’68, they tell you that you do not have values, while you know more about politics than what they know and what your little siblings will never know.

Our problem is basically that many young people do not care about politics and do not want to vote. Have you ever wondered why? It’s not because we do not care – on the contrary. We do care. The problem is that we do not believe in politics. We do not believe in what politicians keep saying, because we know that their promises won’t ever change our lives and our conditions.

Babbo Natale non sempre vi portava ciò che chiedevate, però vi sentivate dire, e lo sentite ancora, che avete avuto tutto, nonostante quelli che sono venuti dopo di voi sì che hanno avuto tutto e nessuno glielo dice.
Santa Claus did not always bring you what you’d asked for, but they kept saying, and they keep saying, that you have had everything, while those who came after you have actually had everything but no one tells them.

That’s true. We felt we have had everything, yet with moderation. And because our parents gave us almost everything, we feel entitled to demand everything right now and in today’s world. When we are no longer kids, when we can no longer ask our parents to buy us something, we have to fight for that everything, we have to strive and struggle, and still we won’t ever be able to have everything right here and right now. We are a generation that grew up in a pretty safe environment and with comforts, but we have also been taught that we have to gain that everything. We had to behave properly, we had to be kind, we had to study. Everything had a price. Nowadays, we know that. We know that we will have to fight even more than our parents to have some crumbles, some little pieces of happiness. On the other hand, those who came after us demand everything right now without being worth it.

Siete la prima generazione che economicamente sta peggio dei propri genitori… Avete avuto libertà, fallimenti, successi e responsabilità e avete imparato a crescere con tutto ciò.
You are the first generation that economically has a worse situation than your own parents… You’ve had freedom, failures, successes and responsibilities, and you’ve learned to grow up with all this.

Think about it. We are the first generation of the economic crisis and who will have a worse life than our own parents. What shall we do? Because if we accept things as they come, we will certainly have a worse situation. So, we must do something, react, try to give our best – once more – to change this system and to break the chains of the system. Break free from the system, otherwise we’ll lose this battle. We have to understand a new set of values; we should not value money anymore, because we will never survive on money. We should value our own happiness, our dreams, our passions. Our parents taught us how to dream. Now, make those dreams come true.


Keep it wild and simple


La Festa è a Buenos Aires

La Festa è a Buenos Aires” – Tre Allegri Ragazzi Morti

Il corpo è fragile la vita violenta
che puoi perderci la mano
che puoi perderci la faccia
che puoi perderci le braccia
che puoi perderci la testa
la festa è a Buenos Aires
civili così civili
che mi ricorderò di te
il tempo per parlare ancora
del futuro che ci aspetterà
vicini così vicini
che mi dimentico di te
il resto intorno è quel che c’è
e la tua storia è dentro la mia storia
civili così civili
vicini così vicini
sento che non sento
e che il mio senso mi tradirà
vicini così vicini
da sentirsi un po’ più liberi
di desiderare il meglio
per un futuro che non ci sarà
la festa è a Buenos Aires.


“The feast is in Buenos Aires”: the body is fragile, life violent, that you can lose your hand, that you can lose your face, that you can lose your arms, that you can lose your head, the feast is in Buenos Aires. Civilized, so civilized, that I will remember you, time to speak again about the future that will await us; near, so near, that I will forget you, the rest around is what there is and your story is inside my story; civilized, so civilized, near, so near, I feel that I don’t feel and that my sense will betray me; near, so near, to feel a bit more free to desire the best for a future that won’t be; the feast is in Buenos Aires.

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

I’ve been listening to this nice Italian group for ages; they are my fav Italian group not only because their music is pretty awesome, but also – and sometimes more importantly – for their lyrics. I have already posted something about the Tre Allegri Ragazzi Morti and their song “La Tatuata Bella” (Una riflessione: “La Tatuata Bella” (TARM) you’ll find here the article). I don’t know how and why, but they manage to reflect much of my thoughts, sometimes just with a bunch of words. As for today’s “La Festa è a Buenos Aires”, I’d like to stop for a while on these words: sento che non sento / e che il mio senso mi tradirà /
vicini così vicini / da sentirsi un po’ più liberi / di desiderare il meglio / per un futuro che non ci sarà.

Despite being abroad, I have not left at home my anxieties, my fears, my doubts. Doubts about the future. And these words talk directly about the future. They start with the present: I feel that I do not feel. Seems like an anesthetic way of living, a way of living in which you try to avoid feelings, emotions, the senses, because they are dangerous and you will otherwise suffer from what you feel. You feel the detachment from a life that’s no longer yours, because someone else always tells you what to do, how to do it, who to be (ultimately). Have you ever thought about how much we depend on something that is not entirely ours? We cannot choose what to do in our lives, we cannot take the path that we want. Or rather, we actually can take it, but then someone (call it the system or whatever you want) will tell you that you are wrong and you’re stuck in a dead end. So we depend on the system, because society is grounded on this underlying web of prejudices, stereotypes, rules, misconceptions, constrains. We cannot choose but do what they want us to do. And if you refuse, if you do not want to bend the knee, then you’re held in chain, then you’re automatically considered a loser, a failure, a failure for being true to your own beliefs…

And then Davide Toffolo says there is a shift, a shift because we are so near to allow ourselves to wish for the best. So some of us are brave enough to hope for the best for their future. Yet, a future that won’t be is already a failure. It reminded me of the TV series “Skins”, when a character says “There is no future“. I wonder what it means, what it truly means. There will always be a future, either for us or for the world. The true meaning is that there is no future worth living. This is how I have often felt. Not that I wanted to do something extreme, bear it in mind! But sometimes I fell prey of anxiety and Niedergeschlagenheit, of my own fears of losing control over my life. That’s the problem of idealists. We would like to live the ideal life, with no clashes, being true to our values, living a life that represent our values completely. And when this idyllic picture collapsed, well, discomfort and disarray… When you are trap in a job that it’s not what you feel in your guts, or when you’d like to follow your dreams but you know how much it will cost… When you have fought all your life for a (more than) decent education, for culture, for your personal growth, and then (almost) no one wants to make you thrive… because society itself is stuck, because intelligent people are often dangerous… well, what else can you do but run away? Even though this is not what you wanted, how you figured it.

Then you climb a mountain. And you see all the bounty and beauty that spread in front of your eyes. You breathe all that oxygen and sap, the grass and the bees’ honey. Your face burnt by the sun, the Rosa in the distance, always covered in some clouds. Or you go back home, after two months, with the legs trembling, tears, happiness. And you find your furry friends there waiting for you, with their eyes full of unconditional love. And you wish it could be like that forever. That’s the future worth living, that’ the future I’d like. But that’s the future so many people find it impossible to live, because of the system, society, the others, commitments, responsibilities, REALITY. That’s a future that clashes against reality, this reality, today’s reality and even tomorrow.

Is there a solution? I don’t know. I have an idea in mind. It’s hard. It’s another climb. The hardest. But that’s an epitome of my life, I guess. The climb. I guess I still have to climb my K2. See it coming. Get ready.

Keep it wild and simple



Words in progress

As some of my most affectionate readers may have noticed, there are some new sections up there in the menu PLUS some of the entries have been slightly changed. Do not worry, it’s just a bit of words in progress (since I do not believe it is truly a ‘work’).


A nice chap from a seminar some days ago suggested creating an academic website or blog to ‘advertise’ our research project and our cv. Now, first of all, I feel I already have a ‘space’ or, better, a ‘place’ on the Internet, so I didn’t want to create another place. Then, I thought that I have always been looking after my blog (with ups and downs, as some of you may know), so it is a project that does not actually need a fresh start. It’s already here, it’s how I like it, it speaks about me and my interests and passions. Maybe in a slightly too informal way (who knows…but this is how I write on the Internet, and not aimed at publishing the essay of the century), but that’s me.

So, while my blog won’t change and I’ll keep on posting my thoughts, reflections, songs, translations, poems and pieces of advice (and much more!), you will also find some more formal articles, my official contact from the University of Leeds, and – maybe – my curriculum, with a bunch of the jobs I’ve been doing, some info about conferences / events etc., and all those nice soft skills that MAYBE employers are looking for. Nonetheless, I still think I’ll have to shape my own career out of iron and fire, and probably there won’t be anyone out there, in the wide world web, that will read my blog and my curriculum and will offer me the chance of a lifetime (like my dream job or money for doing what I want or opportunities to publish translations or my own writings). But… if this someone is out there, please, get in contact with me 🙂

That’s clearly a joke. I just enjoy writing, sharing, and trying to make a difference. So, be curious. Maybe you’ll find more about me here in a while.

For now…

Keep it wild and simple


“Autumn Birds” – John Clare

The wild duck startles like a sudden thought,
And heron slow as if it might be caught.
The flopping crows on weary wings go by
And grey beard jackdaws noising as they fly.
The crowds of starnels whizz and hurry by,
And darken like a clod the evening sky.
The larks like thunder rise and suthy round,
Then drop and nestle in the stubble ground.
The wild swan hurries hight and noises loud
With white neck peering to the evening clowd.
The weary rooks to distant woods are gone.
With lengths of tail the magpie winnows on
To neighbouring tree, and leaves the distant crow
While small birds nestle in the edge below.


Il germano reale è colto di sorpresa, come un pensiero improvviso,
E l’airone lento come se fosse catturato.
I corvi, dimenandosi con ali esauste, passano,
E le taccole dalla barba grigia rumoreggiano mentre volano.
Le folle di storni sfrecciano e si affrettano,
E scuriscono come una zolla il cielo della sera.
Le allodole come un tuono si sollevano e girano a sud,
Poi calano e nidificano nel terreno di stoppie.
Il cigno selvatico si muove in alto e forte frastuona,
Con il suo collo bianco che fa capolino tra le nuvole della sera.
I corvi stanchi sono andati in boschi lontani.
Con lunghezze di coda la gazza ladra continua a mondare
Verso gli alberi vicini, e lascia il corvo lontano
Mentre piccoli uccelli nidificano sul crinale sottostante.

Keep it wild and simple,


“The Garden of Earthly Delights” – Bosch


The Garden of Earthly Delights is a triptych painted by the Netherlandish master Hieronymus Bosch. It was painted between 1490 and 1510. Its interpretations have ranged from an admonition of fleshy indulgence to a dire warning on the perils of life’s temptations. Its symbolism is complex and intricate and we still do not know if the central panel is a moral warning or the paradise lost.

The left panel is also known as the Joining of Adam and Eve and it depicts a scene from the paradise of the Garden of Eden commonly interpreted as the moment when God presents Eve to Adam. The surrounding landscape is populated by hut-shaped forms, some of which are made from stone, while others are at least partially organic. Behind Eve rabbits, symbolising fecundity, play in the grass, and a dragon tree opposite is thought to represent eternal life. The background reveals several animals that would have been exotic to contemporaneous Europeans, including a giraffe, an elephant and a lion that has killed and is about to devour his prey. In the foreground, from a large hole in the ground, emerge birds and winged animals, some of which are realistic, some fantastic.

The centralpanel has a water-bound globe in the middle panel’s upper background which is a hybrid of stone and organic matter. It is adorned by nude figures cavorting both with each other and with various creatures, some of whom are realistic, others are fantastic or hybrid.The garden is teeming with male and female nudes, together with a variety of animals, plants and fruit. The setting is not the paradise shown in the left panel, but neither is it based in the terrestrial realm. Fantastic creatures mingle with the real; otherwise ordinary fruits appear engorged to a gigantic size. The figures are engaged in diverse amorous sports and activities, both in couples and in groups.In the high distance of the background, above the hybrid stone formations, four groups of people and creatures are seen in flight. On the immediate left a human male rides on a chthonic solar eagle-lion. The human carries a triple-branched tree of life on which perches a bird; according to Fraenger “a symbolic bird of death”.
The right panel (220 × 97.5 cm, 87 × 38.4 in) illustrates Hell, the setting of a number of Bosch paintings. Bosch depicts a world in which humans have succumbed to temptations that lead to evil and reap eternal damnation. The tone of this final panel strikes a harsh contrast to those preceding it. The scene is set at night, and the natural beauty that adorned the earlier panels is noticeably absent. Compared to the warmth of the center panel, the right wing possesses a chilling quality—rendered through cold colourisation and frozen waterways—and presents a tableau that has shifted from the paradise of the center image to a spectacle of cruel torture and retribution. In a single, densely detailed scene, the viewer is made witness to cities on fire in the background; war, torture chambers, infernal taverns, and demons in the midground; and mutated animals feeding on human flesh in the foreground. The nakedness of the human figures has lost all its eroticism, and many now attempt to cover their genitalia and breasts with their hands.
Watch Leonardo Di Caprio’s Before the Flood to know more about Bosch and this image: